Friday, April 17, 2015

Strawberry Rhubarb Pandowdy

Spring and summer are all about rustic pastries and desserts made with fresh fruit.  Pies, cobblers and crisps are without question something we crave as we head into this amazing seasonal parade of berries, cherries, apricots, peaches, nectarines, plums and figs.

I’ve picked up some beautiful fresh strawberries and rhubarb and worked these into a pandowdy.  This is an old-fashioned deep-dish spoon dessert that is topped with a thick layer of pie dough rather than a dumpling or biscuit used for cobbler.  The fruit is thickened only slightly to produce lots of juices. The topping is traditionally broken up and pushed down into the fruit once it’s formed a crust during the baking process so it may have gotten its name from the crumpled appearance. 

This pandowdy has a crumbly, nutty, topping and a combination of sweet and tart fruit.  The topping is kind of a cross between pie dough and a biscuit.  It has a perfect balance of flour and brown sugar combined with finely ground almonds and oats, which add a wonderful taste and texture.  I didn’t carry out the traditional breaking up of the top crust because I didn’t want this tasty topping to lose its crisp texture and I wanted to keep the fruit juicy.  The topping comes from a recipe for Raspberry Rhubarb Pandowdy from Williams-Sonoma.  I used strawberries instead of raspberries and almonds instead of pecans. 

This is a really delicious alternative to cobbler.  For an extra note of luxury, add a dollop of whipped cream or a scoop of vanilla ice cream.

Bench notes:
- I like to use sliced almonds because they are easier to process to a fine meal. 
- Toast sliced almonds in a single layer on a baking sheet in a 350 degree oven for about 5 - 8 minutes. Watch them closely as they will burn very, very quickly.
- Taste your strawberries for sweetness and add sugar to your own taste.  
- Add the zest of 1/2 orange and/or 1/4 teaspoon vanilla extract to the fruit for a variation in flavor.  
- I cut out the dough with 2 1/4" square and 2 1/2" round cutters and got 14 biscuits.  I used 9 to top the fruit.  I baked the remaining 5 on a separate baking sheet for about 22 minutes.  They’re delicious all on their own.  

Strawberry Rhubarb Pandowdy
adapted from Williams-Sonoma
Serves 6 - 8

1/2 cup (1 1/2 oz) sliced almonds, toasted
3/4 cup (2 1/4 oz) oats                               
1 cup (5 oz) flour
1/4 cup (1 3/4 oz) dark brown sugar, packed
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/4 teaspoon salt
3 oz (6 tablespoons) cold unsalted butter, cut into 1/2” pieces        
1/2 cup (4 oz) milk

1 1/2 lbs fresh strawberries
12 oz rhubarb (about 5 stalks), cut into 1/2” slices
1/4 cup - 1/3 cup (1 3/4 oz - 2 1/2 oz)) granulated sugar, to taste
2 1/2 teaspoons (6 grams) cornstarch
For the topping, place the toasted almonds, oats, flour, brown sugar, baking power and salt in the bowl of a food processor.  Process until the almonds and oats are finely ground.  Add the cold butter pieces and pulse until the mixture forms coarse, uniform crumbs.  Add the milk and pulse just until mixture comes together and forms a soft, sticky dough.  Place on top of a piece of plastic wrap and pat into a flat disc.  Cover with another piece of plastic wrap and roll the dough out to a 9” square about 1/3” thick.  Slide onto a baking sheet and chill until firm.

Preheat oven to 375 degrees F.

To make the filling, hull and halve the strawberries and place in a large bowl.  Cut the rhubarb into 1/2” pieces and add to the bowl.  Whisk together the granulated sugar and cornstarch and toss with the fruit to coat.  Pour into an 8” square baking dish and distribute evenly.

Using a cookie cutter or a sharp knife, cut out shapes from the dough and arrange over fruit.  Place the pan on a baking sheet to catch any drips.

Bake until the topping is golden brown and the fruit juices are bubbling, about 30-35 minutes. Transfer to a wire rack and cool.  Serve warm or at room temperature.

Friday, April 10, 2015

Yogurt Cake with Strawberries & Cream

Strawberry season is upon us!  There is truly nothing like the onset of spring and the first appearance of gorgeous strawberries.  Their bright red color and luscious flavor are a most welcome addition to our pastry toolbox.  They are the first to appear in our long and lovely parade of fresh fruit this time of year, so each spring I know I have to begin the celebration with strawberries. 

As usual, I like to keep things simple.  Strawberries need no fancy work up.  A simple cake and some whipped cream enhance them quite deliciously.  This cake is made with yogurt, orange and lemon zest and canola oil.  I also add a dash of olive oil, just enough for a bit more flavor but not too much that it overwhelms the delicate flavor of the strawberries.  Whipped cream swirled with sugared strawberries fill the center.  In the end, what sounds and looks like a plain affair is in truth really quite luxurious.  A very good way to kick off our slide into spring.

Here’s to the beginnings of a wonderful spring season full of fresh berries, cherries, apricots, peaches, nectarines, plums and figs!

Bench notes:
- You can use full fat or low fat yogurt.
- Add a bit of orange zest or a dash of balsamic to the mashed berries for variation.
- Use a long serrated knife to cut the cake in half and to trim the sides.
- This is a very versatile cake you can serve with any fresh fruit of the season.  I baked it in an 8" square so it would be tall enough to layer but it can also be baked in a 9" round with fruit served along side your slices.  Check it after about 28 minutes.
- Of course, Strawberry Shortcake is also a MUST.  There’s Almond Shortcakes and Sour Cream Shortcakes with Berries.

Yogurt Cake with Strawberries & Cream
Serves 6 - 8

1 1/2 cups (7 1/2 oz) flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/4 teaspoon baking soda                               
1/4 teaspoon salt    
1/4 cup (2 oz) canola oil
2 tablespoons (1 oz) extra virgin olive oil           
1 cup (7 oz) sugar                                             
3 eggs @ room temperature
zest of 1 lemon
zest of 1 orange                                          
1 teaspoon vanilla                                     
1 cup (8 oz) plain yogurt    

16 oz fresh strawberries
2 tablespoons (26 grams) sugar, to taste

1 1/2 cups (12 oz) heavy cream
1 1/2 tablespoons (19 grams) sugar
1/4 teaspoon vanilla                                              

Preheat oven to 350 degrees F.  Grease an 8” square cake pan and line the bottom with parchment paper, leaving an overhang of an inch or so on two sides.

Sift the flour, baking powder, baking soda and salt.  Set aside.

Whisk together the canola and olive oil, sugar, eggs, lemon and orange zest and vanilla until thoroughly combined.  Mix in the yogurt.  Add the flour mixture and whisk to fully incorporate. 

Pour the batter into the prepared pan. Tap the bottom of the pan on a work surface a few times to eliminate any air bubbles.  Bake until the cake springs back when lightly touched and a tester comes out clean, about 32 - 34 minutes.  Cool the cake in the pan on a wire rack for 10 minutes, then run a thin bladed knife around the edges to loosen it.  Carefully lift the cake out of the pan using the parchment overhang to assist.  Remove the parchment and cool completely. 

Set enough strawberries aside to decorate the top of the cake.  Hull and slice the remainder into a bowl.  Add sugar, to taste, and toss thoroughly.  Set aside for about 10 - 15 minutes to macerate.

Whip the heavy cream, sugar and vanilla to medium peak.  Drain the strawberries and reserve the juices.  Fold about half of the berries into the cream.

Slice the cake in half horizontally and set the top half aside.  Spread the cream on top, leaving about a 1/2” border on all sides.  Top with remaining sliced berries.  Place the other half of the cake on top and press down gently to secure.  Decorate the cake with reserved berries.  Brush the top of the cake and berries with reserved juices.  Trim the sides if you'd like a neater presentation.  Chill until ready to serve, then bring to room temperature.

Friday, April 3, 2015

Raspberry Chocolate Cream Puffs

Among the most iconic French pastries is perhaps pâte à choux.  It forms the basis for the cream puff and the éclair sold by the dozens in just about every pastry case around the world.  This crisp and light-as-air pastry shell, made by cooking water, flour and butter, then adding eggs until it becomes a silky paste, is a great vehicle for an array of delicious fillings and toppings, sweet and savory.  Whether it’s pastry cream and chocolate glaze for the éclair, a billow of whipped cream for a cream puff, a scoop of your favorite ice cream for profiteroles, or a cheesey gougère, there’s no hope of resisting the temptation of each and every bite.  And they make excellent small indulgences that really satisfy a craving for a simple pleasure without being so heavy that you wish you hadn’t.  There are thankfully no regrets with pâte à choux.

The cream puff is a super simple pastry filled with sweetened whipped cream flavored with vanilla (aka, crème chantilly) and dusted with powdered sugar.  In this Raspberry Chocolate Cream Puff, I’ve taken this simple concept and dressed it up a bit by making puffs filled with whipped cream that's been swirled with raspberry jam.  The bottoms are dipped in chocolate, tops dusted with powdered sugar.  The pastry is still light, crisp and airy and presents a bright and alluring visual element.  It’s an easy dessert that takes just a few minutes to assemble.  And truly, there’s nothing like a cream puff.

Place your piped pâte à choux in the oven and then wait for the magic to happen.  You’ll be amazed at how gorgeous they look after just 22 minutes or so.  Breathtaking!

Bench notes:
- Pâte à choux is not difficult to make. It just requires that you try not to hurry the process. What makes it work are a few simple techniques: 
1) Once you add the flour to the boiling water and butter, stir constantly and cook the dough for a couple of minutes until there’s steam rising and a distinct film appears on the bottom of the pan. This is important because you need to cook out the taste of the flour. 
2) Take the dough off the heat and beat it in a mixer with a paddle on medium speed or with a wooden spoon until there is no longer any trace of steam rising. This helps to dry out the dough in preparation for incorporating the eggs. 
3) Add the eggs one at a time and mix thoroughly before adding the next. The dough will look lumpy at first but will smooth out beautifully.  Scrape down the bowl after each addition. 
4) The pâte à choux is ready when it's smooth and shiny and falls from a rubber spatula in gloppy sheets. 
5) Always use an egg wash to ensure beautiful even browning. 
6) The test for baked pâte à choux is when the pastry feels very light and sounds hollow when tapped.
- I use a serrated knife to slice the cream puffs.
- Pâte à choux are best eaten the same day but you can also freeze them baked and unfilled in an airtight container. Thaw and crisp in a 350 degree F oven for about 8 – 10 minutes.
- Swirl your favorite jam into the whipped cream or layer with fresh fruit.
- Switch up the vanilla in the whipped cream with almond extract or brandy.

Raspberry Chocolate Cream Puffs
Makes about 18 cream puffs

1 cup (8 oz) water
4 oz (8 tablespoons) unsalted butter, cut into 1/2” pieces
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup (5 oz) flour
4 eggs
1 egg + 1 tablespoon water + slight pinch of salt for egg wash

6 oz semi-sweet or bittersweet chocolate                     
3 oz (6 tablespoons) unsalted butter, cut into 1/2" pieces

2 cups (16 oz) heavy cream
2 tablespoons (26 grams) sugar
1/2 teaspoon vanilla
1/4 cup raspberry jam
powdered sugar, for dusting

Preheat oven to 425 degrees F.  Prepare 2 baking sheets with silpats or parchment paper. 

Bring the water, butter pieces and salt to a rolling boil.  Reduce heat and add flour all at once. Cook and stir the mixture with a wooden spoon until it’s smooth, pulls away from the sides of pan and leaves a noticeable film on the bottom of the pan.  This will take a couple of minutes.

Pour the mixture into the bowl of a stand mixer and beat with the paddle attachment (or use a bowl and a wooden spoon) until there is no longer any steam rising from the dough.  Beat in one egg until thoroughly mixed.  The dough will go from looking lumpy to very smooth.  Scrape down the bowl, add the second egg and beat until you have the same results.  Continue with the remaining 2 eggs. While the dough is mixing, make an egg wash by combining the egg, water and a slight pinch of salt.  Set aside.  

Place the pâte à choux into a pastry bag fitted with 1/2" plain tip.  Pipe mounds approximately 1 1/2" in diameter.  Wet your index finger with cold water and smooth the tops of each piece of piped dough. Brush lightly with egg wash (you’ll have a lot left over). 

Bake until golden brown and puffed, about 22 - 24 minutes. Remove from the oven and cool completely.

Finely chop the chocolate and place in a heatproof bowl with the butter over a bain marie with an inch or so of barely simmering water, making sure the bottom of the bowl isn’t touching the water.  As it melts, stir to thoroughly combine.  Remove from heat and cool for a minute or so.   

Take each pastry puff and dip the bottoms into the chocolate, scraping against the bowl to remove excess.  Place them with the bottoms up on a baking sheet.  Chill until set.

Whip the heavy cream with the sugar and vanilla to soft peak.  Dollop with the jam and use a small spatula or knife to swirl. 

Using a serrated knife, cut the tops off the pâte à choux and place on a baking sheet.  Dust with powder sugar.  Place a dollop of whipped cream in the bottom and replace the tops.  Serve immediately.

Friday, March 27, 2015

Espresso Cinnamon Buns

One of my favorite ingredients to work with is yeast.  I know a lot of people have a terrible fear of it but I think it’s just about one of most fun food experiments to undertake in the kitchen.  There are so many ways to shape and fill yeast dough and when you pull the pastries out of the oven, it’s really magic to see what has transpired in the baking. The great pleasure you get from working with yeast, the aromas yeasted pastries bring to your kitchen and the great fresh baked taste and texture - it's really super fun.

This is a morning bun that is all about the wonderful flavor of espresso in the filling.  Extending our coffee culture to a yeasted bun turned out to be a very delicious experiment.  Since I absolutely love coffee flavored pastries and desserts, this was a particular pleasure for me. 

The filling for these buns is also rich with cinnamon.  There’s brown sugar, a hint of cocoa powder and toasted walnuts.  The whole mixture is finely ground in a food processor for a svelte bite.  And for a change in visual appeal, instead of baking them in the traditional way, I placed them on their sides and flattened them slightly to create an oblong shape.  As they baked, the slides slid out to create a beautiful little fan.  I also finished them with a shiny espresso glaze.

One last thing: the aroma of these baking will make you crazy.  Let them cool a bit.  By the time you brew a good pot of coffee, they'll be ready for your unbridled enjoyment.

Bench notes:
- Instant espresso powder is very handy to have on hand.  My favorite brand is Medaglia D'Oro because the granules are superfine and if it’s kept free of moisture, it doesn’t clump. I've also used Ferrara.  It stores indefinitely and can be used in lots of pastry recipes when you want to strengthen a coffee flavor.
- The most important rule to follow is to dissolve your yeast in liquid that is 110 - 115 degrees F.  It should feel very warm, not hot.  I usually just let my tap water run to its hottest temperature, measure out what I need and place a thermometer in the measuring cup.  I let it cool just a bit and when it reads 110 - 115 degrees, I whisk in the yeast and then a pinch of sugar.  (Yeast feeds on sugar but yeast activity may decrease if it comes into direct contact with sugar or salt, so dissolve the yeast in water first, then add the sugar.)   I then set it aside to proof for about 10 minutes while I assemble all the other ingredients.  By the time I'm set to work on the recipe, the yeast is foamy and ready to go.
- Salt is important in yeast dough because it slows the rising time and allows the full flavor of the dough to develop.  It also strengthens the gluten and builds the structure of the bread by keeping the carbon dioxide bubbles from expanding too quickly.  Sugar not only adds flavor, it's also a browning agent.
- After the first rise, the dough is "punched down" to release the carbon dioxide and even out the temperature.  But rather than punching, gently press the air out with your hands.
- To avoid adding any additional excess flour when shaping the dough, I like to roll it out on a silpat.  You’ll only need a very light dusting of flour.
- Lightly toast walnuts in a single layer on a baking sheet at 350 degrees F for about 8 - 10 minutes or until they just start to turn golden and give off a light toasty aroma.  Watch them closely so they don’t burn and become bitter.
- The ground nuts really add to the texture and flavor of the filling.  If walnuts aren’t your thing, try almonds or hazelnuts.
- I place the baking sheet of buns on top of another baking sheet (“double pan”) before it goes into the oven to prevent the bottoms from getting too brown.
- Everything you wanted to know about working with yeast can be found at Red Star.

Espresso Cinnamon Buns
Makes 12 buns

Yeast Dough
1 pkg (2 1/4 teaspoons) active dry yeast
1/4 cup (2 oz) warm water (110 -115 degrees F; warm but not hot on your wrist)
slight pinch sugar
1/2 cup (4 oz) milk
3 oz (6 tablespoons) unsalted butter, cut into 1/2" pieces
1/4 cup (1 3/4 oz) sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 1/2 teaspoons vanilla
2 eggs @ room temperature
2 3/4 (13 3/4 oz) - 3 cups (15 oz) flour

1/2 cup (3 1/2 oz) dark brown sugar, packed
1 1/2 teaspoons cinnamon
1 tablespoon instant espresso powder
1 1/2 tablespoons (8 grams) cocoa powder
1/2 cup (1 3/4 oz) walnuts, toasted

1 1/2 oz (3 tablespoons) unsalted butter, melted
1 egg + 1 tablespoon water + few grains of salt for egg wash

2 tablespoons (1 oz) boiling water
1/4 teaspoon instant espresso powder
3 tablespoons (3/4 oz) powdered sugar, sifted
1/8 teaspoon vanilla

For the dough, whisk together 1/4 cup warm water (110 - 115 degrees F) and yeast until thoroughly combined.  Add a very slight pinch of sugar.  Set aside for 10 minutes.

Place the milk, butter, sugar and salt in a saucepan on low heat just until the butter is melted, whisking to combine all the ingredients.  Take off the heat, add the vanilla and cool to room temperature.

Combine the proofed yeast with the milk mixture.  Whisk in the eggs.  Switch to a fork and stir in 2 3/4 cups of flour.  Keep adding 1 tablespoon of flour at a time until the dough is no longer sticky.  Transfer to a lightly floured work surface and knead until the dough is soft, smooth and elastic.

Wash and dry the mixing bowl and lightly grease with canola oil.   Place the dough in the bowl, turning it over once to lightly coat the entire surface with oil.  Cover the bowl with a piece of plastic wrap and set in a warm draft-free place to rise for 1 1/2 hours.

Prepare two baking sheets with silpats or parchment. 

For the filling, place the brown sugar, cinnamon, instant espresso powder, cocoa and walnuts in the bowl of a food processor and process until the nuts are pretty finely ground.  Pour into a bowl and set aside.  

Melt 1 1/2 oz (3 tablespoons) butter and set aside.  Make the egg wash by combining 1 egg, 1 tablespoon water and a few grains of salt and set aside.

When the dough has completed its first rise, press down on it to release the air.  Transfer to a lightly floured work surface and dust the dough very lightly with flour.  Roll it out to a 12" x 18" rectangle. Place it so the long side is nearest you.

Brush the entire surface with the melted butter.  Evenly distribute the filling to within 1" of the top of the long edge.  Gently press down on the filling.  Starting with the long side nearest you, roll the dough into a tight log and seal the end.  Place the seal on the bottom and slice into 12 equal pieces (1 1/2” wide) using a serrated knife.  Arrange them on the prepared baking pans, smooth side up.  Gently flatten them just a bit so they won’t topple over.  They will naturally fan out as they bake.  Set the baking sheets in a warm place for 1/2 hour.  

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F.

For the glaze, combine the boiling water and instant espresso powder together.  Add the sifted powdered sugar and vanilla.  Whisk until the sugar is fully dissolved.  Set aside.

Place the baking sheets on top of another two baking sheets (double pan).  Brush the top of the buns with the egg wash (you’ll have a lot left over). 

Bake until the buns are a golden brown, about 24 - 25 minutes.  Place the pans on a wire rack and brush the buns with the glaze.  Cool. 

Friday, March 20, 2015

Peanut Butter Crunch Bonbons

Today is the first day of Spring!  For me, that means flowers and gorgeous fruit in abundance.  Strawberries are appearing and soon there will be a burst of the bright color of stone fruit in our markets.  After months of the brown earth tones of nuts, spice and chocolate, we have the promise of some bright and beautiful pastries up ahead.

Sweet and salty snacks in the form of peanuts, pretzels and chocolate always appear high on the list for Americans.  So why not put them all together into one gooey little bon bon?

What is a bon bon, anyway?  The term bon in France simply means “good.”  And in France a bon bon refers to just about any little candy.  But in America, they are usually a confection of some sort dipped in chocolate or small scoops of ice cream dipped in chocolate.

This recipe rolls together the happy combination of peanut butter and pretzels with the help of some brown sugar and vanilla.  Then it’s a quick dunk in melted chocolate and voila!  You have a very simple and delicious little bite that can be stored in your freezer for whenever the snacking mood strikes.

Bench notes:
- This is a bit of a messy process.  But that’s what makes it kind of fun.  Keep the filling well-chilled at all times so it doesn't get super sticky.
- I portioned the bon bons with a truffle scoop. 
- I like dark bittersweet chocolate (72%) but use semisweet (62%) for a sweeter version.
- Let the melted chocolate cool just enough so it won’t melt the peanut butter filling when you dip them.
- Garnish the tops of the bon bons with crushed peanuts or a light sprinkle of salt.  

Peanut Butter Crunch Bonbons
Makes about 42 truffle-sized bonbons

1 cup (3 oz) salted pretzels
1/4 cup + 2 tablespoons (1 1/2 oz) salted peanuts
3/4 cup (6 3/4 oz) peanut butter  
3 oz (6 tablespoons) unsalted butter @ room temperature
1/4 cup + 2 tablespoons (2 3/4 oz) dark brown sugar, packed                           
1 1/2 teaspoons vanilla
9 oz bittersweet or semisweet chocolate

Line a baking sheet with a silpat or parchment.

Crush the pretzels into smallish pieces and coarsely chop the peanuts.  Set aside.

Combine the peanut butter, butter, brown sugar and vanilla until smooth and fully combined.  Fold in the pretzels and peanuts.  Chill until the mixture is very firm.

Scoop or shape the peanut butter mixture into 1” balls.  Chill.

Finely chop the chocolate and place in a heatproof bowl over a saucepan of about 1" of barely simmering water, making sure the bottom of the bowl is not touching the water.  As the mixture melts, stir to combine.  Remove from heat and cool for just a couple of minutes or so.  Using a fork, dip each bon bon in the melted chocolate, letting it drip for a moment and scraping the bottom of the fork against the edge of the bowl to remove excess.  Place on a silpat or parchment lined baking sheet to set up.  Chill until firm.

Place the bon bons in a single layer in an airtight container and store in your refrigerator or freeze for longer storage.

Friday, March 13, 2015

Toffee Coffee Pudding

In the realm of creams and custards, there are a few distinctions.  Custard is a cream and egg based mixture baked in a water bath to ensure slow and careful cooking.  Pot de crème is traditionally baked in porcelain cups and is usually a little looser in texture.  Pudding is cooked on the stovetop and contains fewer eggs and a measure of cornstarch and/or flour as a thickening agent.

Toffee sauce is brown sugar and butter heated just to the point where the sugar is fully dissolved.  And since brown sugar contains a hint of molasses, it has a distinct flavor.  Toffee differs from caramel in that caramel is made with white sugar and is cooked until it reaches a rich dark amber stage.  Cream is usually added to turn it into a sauce.  They each have a different viscosity, sweetness and richness.

This is an easy pudding that combines the deliciousness of toffee with the creamy makings of a coffee flavored pudding.  It’s super simple and a wonderful union of ingredients for anyone who enjoys any one of these elements.  You can make it ahead and chill until ready to serve. Then when you’re ready for a treat, just add a dollop of freshly whipped cream and sit back and savor, spoonful by spoonful.

Bench notes:
- Use your favorite dark roast coffee beans for the very best flavor. 
- Leave the coffee beans whole.  If ground or crushed, they tend to absorb too much of the milk. 
- These custards will keep in your refrigerator for a day or two.  
- The cookie used as a garnish in the photos is Brown Butter Walnut Shortbread.
- For the simple and sublime, try the purely luscious Vanilla Pudding.

Toffee Coffee Pudding
4 half-cup servings

1 1/2 oz (3 tablespoons) unsalted butter                                                                       
1/4 cup + 2 tablespoons (2 3/4 oz) dark brown sugar, packed                                 
1/4 cup (2 oz) heavy cream                                                                                   
1/2 teaspoon lemon juice                                                 
pinch salt, to taste              

2 cups (16 oz) whole milk                                                                         
1/2 cup (1 1/2 oz) whole coffee beans                           
2 large egg yolks                                                    
2 tablespoons (18 grams) cornstarch               
1/4 cup (2 oz) Kahlua                                                                     
1 teaspoon vanilla                          
pinch salt, to taste

1/4 cup + 2 tablespoons (3 oz) heavy cream
1 1/2 teaspoons (6 grams) sugar
1/8 teaspoon vanilla

For the toffee, melt the butter in a saucepan over medium low heat.  Add the brown sugar and whisk until fully combined with the butter.  Bring it to a slow boil, whisking constantly.  Whisk in 1/4 cup heavy cream.  Continue to whisk over low heat until there are no lumps of sugar and the mixture is a smooth sauce.  Remove from heat and add the lemon juice and salt, to taste.  Set aside.

For the pudding, place the milk and coffee beans in a saucepan and bring to a slow simmer.  Turn off the heat and steep for 1/2 hour, then strain and discard the coffee beans.  Return the milk to the heat and bring to a slow simmer.

In a separate bowl, whisk the egg yolks together.  Add cornstarch and whisk until thickened and smooth.  Slowly pour about a third of the warm milk mixture into the eggs, whisking thoroughly to combine.  Add remaining milk and continue whisking.  Add the toffee mixture and combine thoroughly. 

Pour the mixture back into the saucepan and return to medium low heat.  Bring to a very slow boil, stirring constantly with a heatproof rubber spatula or flat-bottom wooden spoon.  Once it begins to bubble, reduce the heat to low and continue to cook for about 2 minutes, stirring constantly, until the pudding thickens.  The pudding is ready when it coats the spatula and a finger traced through it leaves a clean track.  It will thicken more as it cools.

Remove from heat and add the Kahlua and vanilla.  Taste and adjust for salt.  Pour into ramekins and set aside to cool.  Place in the refrigerator to chill and set up.

To serve, whisk heavy cream, sugar and vanilla until soft peaks form.   Dollop each custard with whipped cream.